Style cn36 Size Increase Thick Eu36 Bottom Heel Black Summer Xw White Shoes England Slippers For button uk4 Girls color Roman One Beach Buckle Mid Women Sandals Women's x0wZ4Bqn7 Style cn36 Size Increase Thick Eu36 Bottom Heel Black Summer Xw White Shoes England Slippers For button uk4 Girls color Roman One Beach Buckle Mid Women Sandals Women's x0wZ4Bqn7 Style cn36 Size Increase Thick Eu36 Bottom Heel Black Summer Xw White Shoes England Slippers For button uk4 Girls color Roman One Beach Buckle Mid Women Sandals Women's x0wZ4Bqn7 Style cn36 Size Increase Thick Eu36 Bottom Heel Black Summer Xw White Shoes England Slippers For button uk4 Girls color Roman One Beach Buckle Mid Women Sandals Women's x0wZ4Bqn7 Style cn36 Size Increase Thick Eu36 Bottom Heel Black Summer Xw White Shoes England Slippers For button uk4 Girls color Roman One Beach Buckle Mid Women Sandals Women's x0wZ4Bqn7
Xk' Shoes 'sportivo Tod's Nubuck Women's Beige Sneakers Oq8cftw
Math You Need > Topographic Maps and Slopes > Slopes

Style cn36 Size Increase Thick Eu36 Bottom Heel Black Summer Xw White Shoes England Slippers For button uk4 Girls color Roman One Beach Buckle Mid Women Sandals Women's x0wZ4Bqn7

03 Cylinder Ankle Qupid Women's Bootie Black qwzxfF4CEGray Buckle heels High Pumps Frosted Odomolor toe Round Solid 33 shoes Women's qfvw01a Many of us know that the slope of a line is calculated by "rise over run". However, the application of slope calculation can seem a little more complicated. In the geosciences, you may be asked to calculate the slope of a hill or to determine rate by calculating the slope of a line on a graph. This page is designed to help you learn these skills so that you can use them in your geoscience courses.

For Summer Thick Size Mid color Style Increase England One Buckle Heel uk4 Bottom cn36 button Women's Girls Slippers White Xw Roman Black Beach Sandals Women Eu36 Shoes Why should I calculate slope or gradient?

In the geosciences slope can play an important role in a number of problems. The slope of a hill can help to determine the amount of erosion likely during a rainstorm. The gradient of the water table can help us to understand whether (and how much) contamination might affect a local well or water source.

How do I calculate slope (or gradient) in the geosciences?

Gradient in the case of hillslope and water table is just like calculating the slope of a line on a graph - "rise" over "run". But how do you do that using a contour (or topographic) map?

  1. First get comfortable with the features of the topographic map of interest. Make sure you know a few things:
    • What is the contour interval (sometimes abbreviated CI)?
    • Black uk4 Thick Heel Eu36 Girls Xw Roman Slippers White Bottom One England color cn36 button Buckle Mid Increase Beach Style Women Size Shoes For Sandals Women's Summer What is the scale of the map?
    • What is the feature for which you want to know the slope?
    Below there is a topographic map of Math State Park. You are interested in building a path from the top of the hill on this map to the creek (Equation Creek) and want to know the slope of the hill. You should probably Sandals oro Oxitaly Soave Gold Women's 18 Oro AtvOxPq (Acrobat (PDF) 93kB Oct15 08). .
    • What is the contour interval of this map?
      The contour interval tells you "rise", specifically the change in elevation between each of the "brown lines" (contours). In this case, the contour interval is in the key in the lower right and is abbreviated CI. The contour interval is 20 ft.
    • What is the scale of the map?
      The scale tells you the "run", or the distance on the ground. On this map, it is also shown in the lower right and is shown only graphically. If you Sandals oro Oxitaly Soave Gold Women's 18 Oro AtvOxPq (Acrobat (PDF) 93kB Oct15 08), you will find that 1 inch = 1 mile.
    • What is the feature for which you want to know the slope?
      White Heel Women's Mid England Buckle Style Thick Sandals Eu36 Xw Shoes Beach Slippers Size Increase Women One For Summer color Girls Black cn36 Roman Bottom button uk4
      In this case, you want to know the slope of the hillside to the WNW from the top (at 869 ft) to the creek.
    Supra Top Women's High Skytop Weiß HnFqCYzW
  2. First, you need to know "rise" for the feature. "Rise" is the difference in elevation from the top to bottom (see the image above). So determine the elevation of the top of the hill (or slope, or water table).
    The top of the hill of interest is 859 ft. The contour line at the creek where your path will end is one below 700 ft. That makes it 680 ft (because the contour interval is 20 ft). The difference in elevation is the top minus the bottom (859 ft - 680 ft) so Girls color Bottom Sandals For White button cn36 Women uk4 England Style Size Buckle Summer One Shoes Beach Slippers Heel Eu36 Increase Xw Mid Thick Black Women's Roman "rise" = 179 ft
  3. Next you need to know "run" for the feature. "Run" is the horizontal distance from the highest elevation to the lowest. So, get out your ruler and measure that distance. If you know the scale, you can calculate the distance. Most of the time distance on maps is given in km or mi.
    uk4 Heel Women's Beach Roman Buckle White Increase Summer England One button Size Bottom Style Slippers Women Girls Sandals Mid cn36 Shoes Black color Xw Eu36 For Thick
    The red line represents the distance along the hillslope where you want to build your path. The red line is twice as long as the scale for one mile (on the printed map, it is about 2 inches). Thus, the distance from the top to bottom of the hill or "run" = 2 mi
  4. Now comes the rise over run part. There are two ways that you may be asked to make calculations relating to slope. Make sure you know what the question is asking you and follow the steps associated with the appropriate process:
    • If you are asked to calculate slope (as in a line or a hillside), a simple division is all that is needed. Just make sure that you keep track of units!
      1. As we've seen throughout this page, slope is "rise over run". The phrase "rise over run" implies that you will need to divide. The equation for slope looks like this:
      2. Take the difference in elevation and divide it by the horizontal difference (always making sure you keep track of units).
        On the map of Math State Park the hill's rise = 179 ft and run is 2 mi. So we set up the problem like this:

      3. Finish the calculation using your calculator (or doing the calculations by hand).
        Now we just divide the rise by the run and wind up with:

        little Sling Flip Sanuk Kids Kid big Yoga Kid toddler Burst Geo Pop Pink Flop Iq0fw

        Roman One Increase White Xw button Style Bottom Girls Size Sandals Shoes Summer Women Mid Eu36 color Slippers Heel uk4 Women's Beach Black Buckle For cn36 Thick England

        The units you end up with might be feet/mile or m/km or feet/foot (slope can be expressed in all these ways). It just depends on what you started with.
    • You may also be asked to calculate percent (or %) slope. This calculation takes a couple of steps. And it mostly has to do with paying attention to units. The units on both rise and run have to be the same.
      1. To calculate percent slope, both rise and run must be in the same units(for example, feet or meters). If your horizontal distance is in miles, you need to convert to feet; if the horizontal distance is in kilometers, you'll have to convert to meters. (To convert from miles to feet, multiply by 5280 ft/mi; km to m, multiply by 1000m/km. If you need more help with this or need to convert other units, please see the Points Ten Women’s cognac Heels Amelia 319 Brown Sandals PHHwpq).
        Right now you have rise in feet and run in miles. Let's convert the miles to feet by multiplying by the appropriate conversion factor: 1 mile = 5280 feet. So, we should multiply "run" by Opsun Flats 2 Uk Ballet Women’s Size Black rRwCUgrqx:
        Girls Thick For Increase Size Sandals Shoes color Black Bottom cn36 Mid Xw Beach Slippers England Women's Style Heel One White Roman Buckle uk4 button Women Summer Eu36

      2. Once you have converted so that both elevation and distance have the same units, we can write an equation for slope: rise over run (implying rise divided by run).
        We know that rise is 179 ft and run is 10560 ft:


        But, hold on, there's one more step to getting to % slope.
      3. To get to % we need to multiply the calculated slope (which is unitless because the units cancel on the top and bottom) by 100 so that our equation looks like this:
        Beach Eu36 Women button cn36 Girls Size Black For Women's color Mid Shoes Increase One Heel England uk4 Summer Slippers White Bottom Roman Style Buckle Xw Sandals Thick
        Start with rise over run and multiply by 100:
      4. Now plug in your numbers and calculate % slope!
        Women Women's cn36 Xw Sandals Black Shoes One Beach Eu36 Girls Roman Buckle For Summer Style color Thick button Increase Mid Size Bottom Heel White Slippers England uk4
        Note that % slope does not have any units because ft cancel in the calculation. Make sure that you indicate that it's % however!

Next Steps